The primary function of an enzyme inhibitor is to bind to enzymes and in return help in the reduction of the activity that may be present. Most drugs that doctors prescribe to patients are enzyme inhibitors despite the fact that some may be the opposite (enzyme activators) when enzyme activities are blocked, pathogens get killed. Pathogens cause diseases which in return cause certain sicknesses. The correction of the metabolic imbalance is primary to the well being of humans. Parp inhibitors bind with an enzyme in the body to reduce or inhibit DNA breakage thus reducing the chances of breast cancer formation. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) is the enzyme that binds with these inhibitors.
Over the years there have been various trials to determine the nature of parp inhibitors with a few fails and successes. This has been achieved by experimenting on different tumors including lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer among others. Due to all these trials set to determine the importance of parp inhibitors there are still pressing questions from authors and researchers suppressing to understand the benefits of these enzyme inhibitors. Some of the questions that authors want to understand and explain to readers in simple language the phenotype that would statistically predict the actual response?
There are various types of proteins that act in the human body during the repair mechanism of the damaged DNA cells. For example the proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for repairing double strands DNA breaks. Homologous recombination repair mechanism is the repair system that these proteins use to avoid flaws. When either of the two proteins mutates that is when either of the genes transforms, the changing process may lead to flaws within the DNA repair which in return may be responsible for breast cancer formation. However gene alteration can lead to death of the cancer causing cells by subjecting them to enough damage in time and thus this could alleviate the tumor growth which is the reason why parp inhibitors come as handy in this process. Parp inhibitors are used during the chemotherapeutic procedure in the treatment of the breast cancer because PARP1 repair would repair the single strand breaks in the DNA. When the repair is inhibited by parp inhibitors, this leads to the cause of double strand breaks thus inhibiting mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2.
This is how it works, when BRCA2 or BRCA1 proteins mutates, the errors are the primary cause of breast cancer however when PARP1 is inhibited to performing its duty which is repairing nicks within DNA a process that can also be referred to as single strand repair mechanism. Once BRCA1 or BRCA2 proteins may not be in a position to repair the multiple strands formed after PARP1 has been inhibited from performing its duties, the cancer cells die and thus how these enzymes work in combating breast cancer. Different study and experiments are still underway to determine whether the said inhibitors could be used in treatment of other tumors that may be life threatening in the human body. Breast cancer is more prevalent in women unlike in the situation of men where prostate cancer is more common.